Landfill leachate is liquid that moves through or drains from a dump or organized trash collection site. Some leachate exists on its own, usually as a result of natural decomposition. liquids and chemicals that have been discarded also contribute. The biggest source of leachate in most places is rainwater, though. When rain hits collected trash, it tends to pool up. If this runoff is not properly managed it is at risk for mixing with the groundwater near the site. This can have dire consequences for local communities, particularly in cases where the landfill leachate is toxic or contains harmful chemicals, and can potentially also impact the ecosystems of rivers, streams, and oceans.
How it Forms
The most common source of leachate is rainwater filtering down through the landfill and aiding bacteria in the process of decomposition. When organic matter breaks down or decomposes, it needs oxygen; when water hits it, things tend to go a lot faster. Unless a dump is covered, rainfall is all but inevitable.
It’s usually true that some liquid exists already, or will over time. Some garbage, particularly food products, will lose moisture as it breaks down. Chemical waste is also fairly common, be it from discarded batteries, electronics, or household cleaners. As the trash is allowed to sit and pile up, liquids tend to drain off and get mixed up with each other.
The leachate may be virtually harmless or dangerously toxic depending upon what is in the landfill, but it either case it typically has high concentrations of nitrogen, iron, organic carbon,manganese, chloride and phenols. Other chemicals, including pesticides, solvents and heavy metals, may also be present. Leachate is often black or yellow when it first leaves the site, and usually has a strong acidic smell.
Where it Goes
Whether landfill leachate is a problem largely depends on what happens to it once it forms. Many modern landfills are designed with special filters and drains so that the runoff can be contained, sanitized, and processed but this is not always the case. If managers don’t do anything, the leachate will usually escape into the soil beneath or surrounding the dump site.
Chemicals that soak into the earth can pose serious risks to the environment both in terms of soil contamination and water safety. Plants will not thrive and are more prone to disease and weakness when the dirt around them is imbalanced. Much of the world’s water sources come from the ground, too, and chemical penetration into underground aquifers can cause sickness and, in some cases, even death.
Leachate that has had a lot of time to soak into the ground may also reach rivers or streams, which can poison fish and cause genetic mutations in sea life. If harmful chemicals eventually make it to the open ocean the effects can be even more devastating, damaging delicate ecosystems and causing potentially irreversible harm.
Prevention and Treatment
The governments of most countries and localities require that landfill sites be equipped to collect, store, and treat leachate. In most cases this means that dumps have impermeable layers on the sides and at the bottom made of hard plastic or other non-corrosive material. Drainpipes and runoff filtration systems are also common, though these are often expensive and require regular monitoring in order to be effective.
In most places, the liquid that collects must be monitored and treated if required. Regulations typically require site managers to isolate chemicals and volatile organic compounds, then filter and sterilize the liquid to neutralize any harmful compounds. Past this point, it can be treated in a manner similar to sewage and then safely released into the environment as wastewater.
Older landfill sites must be dug up and either a new impermeable bottom must be installed or the material relocated to another site. It is often the case that the cost to dig up these old sites is too high for a municipality to cover, with the result that nothing may in fact happen, at least not for some time. This is of particular concern in the developing world where resources are scarce and land is not always readily developed. Even when problem sites are dug up and relocated or properly prepared, the damage may have already been done and it may take years before the area can fully recover.
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Calcite: The No. 1 Culprit
Based on field studies and lysimeter tests, calcium was determined to be the dominant element responsible for the precipitate clogging. Carbonates, sulfates, iron, and phosphorous were also found to cause precipitate formation. These findings are consistent with other reported landfill clogging investigations. By assessing both leachate from existing landfills and leachate created under laboratory conditions, the team determined that clogging occurs when the equilibrium among calcium species is disrupted by microbial activity, the presence of additional minerals, and a change in oxidation conditions. At this stage of research, the rate of clog formation, the likelihood that the phenomenon will peak, and the extent of the formation over the life of the landfill are still unknown. Anaerobic bacterial activities in landfills will be present as long as the source of carbon and substrates exists. The team is hopeful that these questions will be answered through additional analysis and modeling efforts.
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